AERA 2019 Toronto, Canada
Poster presentation: Welcome to Online Learning: Pedagogy and Practice in Instructor-Generated Videos
Abstract: In this post-truth era, educational pedagogical decisions must clearly be guided by objective facts and proven practice. This study used instructor interviews to examine instructor pedagogical decisions about video creation in online courses. We share an emerging framework for coding and categorizing form and content of instructor-generated videos used in online discussion and teaching. This framework establishes a potential set of criteria that instructors can consider in evaluating their own videos and which will continue to be elaborated through subsequent research studies. The instructional goal of this research is to develop pedagogical supports for faculty teaching online.
Arbaugh, J. (2008). Does the community of inquiry framework predict outcomes in online MBA courses? International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 9.
Arbaugh, J. (2010). Do Undergraduates and MBAs Differ Online?: Initial Conclusions From the Literature. Journal of Leadership Organizational Studies, 17(2), 129-142. doi:10.1177/1548051810364989
Author (2018). Teacher presence and pedagogy: a thematic interview discussion about online learning. Thesis, University of Toronto, OISE. Toronto, ON.
Author & Author (2016). SSHRC Insight Grant. University of Toronto. Toronto. ON.
Author (April 2016). Best practices for teacher determined meaningful discourse, literature review. University of Waterloo: Waterloo, ON.
Biocca, F., Harms, C., & Burgoon, J. K. (2003). Criteria for a theory and measure of social presence. Presence, 12(5), 456–480.
Boling, E. C., Hough, M., Krinsky, H., Saleem, H., Stevens, M (2012). Cutting the distance in distance education: Perspectives on what promotes positive, online learning experiences. Internet and Higher Education, 15 (2), 118-126.
Borup, J., West, R. E., & Graham, C. R. (2012). Improving online social presence through asynchronous video. The Internet and Higher Education, 15, 195-203.
Borup, J., West, R., Thomas, R. & Graham (2014). Examining the impact of video feedback on instructor social presence in blended courses. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Education, 232-255.
Brecht, H. (2012). Learning from Online Video Lectures. Journal of Information Technology Education, Innovations in Practice, 11, 227-250.
DeWaard, H. (2016). Voice and video instructor feedback to enhance instructor presence. Humanizing Online Teaching and Learning, (2016). Chapter 5.
Ernest, P. (1995). The one and the many. In L. P. Steffe & J. Gale (Ed.), Constructivism in education (pp. 459–486). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Fried, A. (2016). Social network analysis of asynchronous discussion in online learning, Thesis, University of Toronto.
Fulford, C. P., & Zhang, S. (1993). Perceptions of interaction: The critical predictor in distance education. American Journal of Distance Education, 7(3), 8–21.
Garrison, D. R. & Anderson, T. (2003). E-learning in the 21st century. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2003). A theory of critical inquiry in online distance education. Handbook of distance education, 1, 113-127.
Garrison, R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2010). The first decade of the community of inquiry framework: A retrospective. The Internet and Higher Education, 13 (1-2), 5-9.
Garrison, D. R. (2011). E-Learning in the 21st century: A framework for research and practice (2nd Ed.). London: Routledge/Tayor and Francis.
Graham, C. R. (2006). Blended learning systems: Definitions, current trends, and future directions. In C. J. Bonk & C. R. Graham (Eds.), Handbook of blended learning: Global perspectives, local designs. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer Publishing, 3-21.
Gredler, M. E. (2009). Hiding in plain sight: The stages of mastery/self-regulation in Vygotsky's cultural-historical theory. Educational Psychologist, 44(1), 1-19.
Gunawardena, C. N. (1995). Social presence theory and implications for interaction and collaborative learning in computer conferences. International Journal of Educational Telecommunications, 1(2/3), 147-166.
Gunawardena, C. N., & Zittle, F. J. (1997). Social presence as a predictor of satisfaction within a computer-mediated conferencing environment. The American Journal of Distance Education, 11(3), 8-26.
Ice, Phillip, Curtis, Regan, Phillips, Perry & Wells, John (2007). Using Asynchronous Audio Feedback to Enhance Teaching Presence and Students’ Sense of Community. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 11 (2). Pp. 3-25.
Kizilcec, R. F., Bailenson, J. N., & Gomez, C. J. (2015). The instructor's face in video instruction: Evidence from two large-scale field studies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107(3), 724-739.
Kruger-Ross, M. J., & Waters, R. D. (2013). Predicting online learning success: Applying the situational theory of publics to the virtual classroom. Computers & Education, 61, 176–184.
Lyons, A., Reysen, S., & Pierce, L. (2012). Video lecture format, student technological efficacy, and social presence in online courses. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(1), 181-186.
Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning. Cambridge University Press.
McAlister, R. (2014). Use of Instructor-Produced YouTube ® Videos to Supplement Manual Skills Training in Occupational Therapy Education. The American journal of occupational therapy: official publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association. 68, S67-S72, 10.5014/ajot.2014.685S04.
McDonald, J., & Gibson, C. C. (1998). Interpersonal dynamics and group development in computer conferencing. The American Journal of Distance Education, 12(1), 7 – 25.
Nandi, Dip, Hamilton, M. & Harland, J. (2012). Evaluating the quality of interaction in asynchronous discussion forums in fully online courses. Distance Education, 33(1), 5-30, doi: 10.1080/01587919.2012.667957
National Union of Students. (2008). NUS student experience report. London, UK: GfK Financial. http://www.nus.org.uk/PageFiles/4017/NUS_StudentExperienceReport.pdf
Oztok, M. & Author, (2011). Social presence and online learning: A review of the research. The Journal of Distance Education, 25(3), 1-10.
Oztok, M., Zingaro, D., Makos, A., Author and Hewitt, J. (2015). Capitalizing on social presence: the relationship between social capital and social presence. Internet and Higher Education, Vol. 26, 07.2015, 19-24.
Phirangee, K., Epp, C. D., & Hewitt, J. (2016). Exploring the Relationships between Facilitation Methods, Students’ Sense of Community and Their Online Behaviours. Online Learning, 20(2). doi:10.24059/olj.v20i2.775
Putman, M, Ford, K., and Tancock, S. (2012). Redefining Online Discussions: Using Participant Stances to Promote Collaboration and Cognitive Engagement. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 24.2, pp. 151-167.http://www.isetl.org/ijtlhe/ ISSN 1812-9129
Richardson, J. C., & Swan, K. (2003). Examining social presence in online courses in relation to students’ perceived learning and satisfaction. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 7(1), 68-88.
Rourke, L., Anderson, T., Archer, W., & Garrison, R. (1999). Assessing social presence in asynchronous computer conferencing transcripts. Journal of Distance Education, 14(2), 50-71.
Shea, P., & Bidjerano, T. (2009). Community of inquiry as a theoretical framework to foster ‘‘epistemic engagement” and ‘‘cognitive presence” in online education. Computers and Education, 52, 543 – 553.
Shea, P., Li, C. S., & Pickett, A. (2006). A study of teaching presence and student sense of learning community in fully online and web-enhanced college courses. The Internet and Higher Education, 9(3), 175-190. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2006.06.005
Short, J., Williams, E., & Christie, B. (1976). The social psychology of telecommunications. London: John Wiley & Sons.
Stahl, G. and Hesse, F., 2009. Practice perspectives in CSCL. International Journal of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning. 4(2), pp. 109-114.
Swan, K., Garrison, D. R. & Richardson, J. C. (2009). A constructivist approach to online learning: the Community of Inquiry framework. In Payne, C. R. (Ed.) Information Technology and Constructivism in Higher Education: Progressive Learning Frameworks. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 43-57.
Swan, K., Shea, P., Fredericksen, E., Pickett, A., Pelz, W., & Maher, G. (2012). Building Knowledge Building Communities: Consistency, Contact and Communication in the Virtual Classroom. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 23(4), 359-383. doi:10.2190/w4g6-hy52-57p1-ppne
Vrasidas, C. (2000). Constructivism versus objectivism: Implications for interaction, course design, and evaluation in distance education. International Journal of Educational Telecommunications, 6(4), 339-362.
Wang, J., & Antonenko, P. D. (2017). Instructor presence in instructional video: Effects on visual attention, recall, and perceived learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 71, 79-89.
Yin, R. (2014). Case Study Research: Design and Methods, 5th Edition. Sage: U.S.A.
Zhang W. & Zhou, J. (2006). Image preprocessing technique of digital video interpretation. Guangdian Gongcheng/Opto-Electronic Engineering. 33 (10), 141 – 144.